WHAT ARE SKULL FRACTURES?
Often the foot slips due to brisk walking, which results in head injury. Sometimes accidents also result in head injuries. Some people feel pain, but they ignore it. Even a minor injury to the head should not be ignored. Doing so can prove fatal for you. Sometimes, even a minor injury can prove fatal.
ALL YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT THE SKULL AND ENCLOSED BRAIN
The brain is the most sensitive and important part of our body, with the help of which other organs work. The effect of a minor injury on this brain and its inner parts of the head can become serious.
In such a situation, protection of the head is very important. Injuries to the head due to injury in the wrong place or in the wrong way can prove to be serious. Know what serious problems can lead to even a minor injury on the head.
The brain serves as a control center for all body functions, including conscious actions (walking and speaking) and unconscious actions (breathing, beating, etc.). The mind also controls thoughts, perception, speech, and emotions.
Some or all of these functions can be disrupted by damage to the brain, whether from a forceful injury or from a closed head injury. In a closed head injury, there is no break or hole in the cranium.
Brain injury can be serious and can have life-long effects on physical and mental functions. These include loss of consciousness, memory and/or personality reversal, partial or complete paralysis.
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results from motor vehicle accidents, falls, violent incidents, and sports injuries. It is twice as common in men as in women. It is estimated that the rate is 100 per one lakh and 52,000 people die every year. It most commonly occurs in people between the ages of 15 and 24 and those who are 75 years of age or older.
ANATOMY OF BRAIN
Enclosed in the bony structure of the cranium, the brain is a gelatinous substance that floats in the cerebrospinal fluid. The fluid supports the brain and acts as a shock absorber to withstand the blows in the rapidly spinning hisser.
The outer surface of the cranium is smooth, but the inner surface is dentate – this can cause significant damage in a closed head injury because the brain can bounce inside the rough bone structure of the cranium.
WHAT ARE SKULL FRACTURES?
Many times a fall causes injury to the skull. This also breaks bones. This is called a skull fracture. Sometimes, the brain is also seriously affected by this injury. Injury causes swelling and reddening of the outer skin of the scalp.
Yes, even in this condition there are no signs of fracture, so people make the mistake of ignoring this injury. If you’ve been hurt too, don’t ignore it. Especially, when blood comes out from the nose and ears, otherwise this problem can prove to be dangerous.
CLASSIFICATION OF HEAD INJURY
The classification (type) of head injury tells us which part of the brain is injured
- If there is an injury to the outer part of the brain or the skin, then there is no danger in it
- Just below the skin is the skull i.e. cranium and there are bones, if there is injury and fracture in it, then it is seen by CT scan.
- There is a sheet under the bones called meninges. It has three surfaces called-
- Dura Mater
- Arachnoid Mater
- Pia Mater
If there is an accumulation of blood between the skull and the dura mater, then it is called extradural hemorrhage.
- Dural hemorrhage and lucid interval
Dural hemorrhage occurs due to rupture of the arteries or blood vessels due to pressure of blood. In this, blood accumulates very rapidly inside the brain. Due to the accumulation of this blood, there is a lot of pressure, there is also a risk of death.
The most dangerous thing is the absence of any symptoms in the first 24 hours, in which case the patient gets the illusion that he does not have any specific disease. We call this confusing situation the Lucid interval.
That is why a CT scan is done first in case of head injury, the patient is kept under observation for 24 hours so that the seriousness of the injury can be understood as soon as the red flag sign is seen
- Injury to skull
Below the skull is the dura mater and below it is the brain. There is extradural space between the skull and the dura mater
- Subdural hemorrhage
Subdural space is present between the dura mater and the brain. There is less blood flow in the subdural matter, due to which the coagulation of blood also happens very slowly. Often there are no symptoms for months or even years. This mostly happens to older people who suddenly get these symptoms after a few years – headache, fainting, paralysis.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage
If the blood vessel is torn directly inside the head, it is called intracerebral hemorrhage. This is a very dangerous situation. In which the patient may be paralyzed. Epileptic seizures can occur or death can occur due to the displacement of part of the brain due to pressure.
- Diffuse Axonal injury
Sometimes, without bleeding on the head, just because of the injury, there is so much movement that the vessels coming in contact with the head get pulled. Due to the contact of nerves, there is a high possibility of pain. This condition is called diffuse axonal injury. In this, the patient reaches a state of coma and the scope of improvement is greatly reduced.
THINGS TO BE KEPT IN MIND IN CASE OF HEAD INJURY
What are the things to be kept in mind?
- If someone has a head injury, first take him to the nearest hospital, where a CT scan facility is available.
- If there are no serious danger signs in the CT scan, a medical dressing is done for the external injury
- Antibiotics are given to prevent infection
- Get tetanus vaccine
- Pain medicine is given
- If the injury is severe and it is causing pressure on the brain, then some medicines are given to reduce the pressure.
- If the injury is severe, then the skull is removed by surgery.
If someone is having epileptic seizures due to injury, then epilepsy medicine is started, these medicines can last for two years.
- Sometimes the patient needs to be kept on a ventilator in a state of unconsciousness, the patient can remain in the coma for months.
WHAT ARE THE THINGS TO KEEP IN MIND AFTER THE DISCHARGE OF SUCH PATIENTS?
- Understand all the medicines that have been given by the hospital.
- Antibiotics or pain medications are given for a few days
- Epilepsy medicine lasts for months and years. so don’t interrupt
- If the patient is in bed then it is very important to have physiotherapy.
- Patients who have difficulty in swallowing, are given a nasal tube
- Patients get bed sore due to lying on the bed, so pay special attention to it
EFFECTS OF DAMAGE TO THE BRAIN
Damage to the brain such as a rupture or perforation in the cranium (from a vehicle accident, fall, or bullet injury), a disease process (neurotoxin, infection, neoplasia, metabolic abnormality, etc.) or shaken baby syndrome, or a rapid increase or decrease in head movement occurs in a closed head injury.
When damage occurs from a blow, this damage to the brain can result from swelling (cerebral edema) and bleeding in the brain (intracerebral hemorrhage) or hemorrhage around the head (epidural or subdural hemorrhage) at or after the injury.
When the head is hit hard enough, the brain spins and spins on its axis (brain column). This obstructs the normal nervous system and leads to loss of consciousness. If this unconsciousness persists for a long time, the injured person is considered to be in a coma. This condition occurs due to the disruption of nerve fibers going from the brain column to the cortex.
Closed head injuries often occur without any obvious outward signs, but there is a big difference between closed and puncture wounds. For example, a gunshot wound may destroy a large part of the brain, but if that part is not significant, the result will be minor.
In contrast, closed head injuries often result in more extensive damage and widespread neurological deficits, including partial to complete paralysis, cognitive, behavioral, and memory dysfunction, persistent inactivity, and death.
REHABILITATION FOR A SKULL FRACTURE AND INJURY TO THE BRAIN
Damaged brain tissue may heal for a short period of time. However, once brain tissue is dead or destroyed, there is no precedent for new brain cells to grow again. Although new cells do not grow, the process of restoration usually continues. Perhaps other parts of the brain take over the action of the destroyed tissue.
The rehabilitation process starts immediately. Once memory begins to be restored, the rate of restoration is often accelerated. However, many problems may remain. These include speed, memory, flexibility, complex thinking, speech and language, and behavioral changes.
Patients who survive these obvious physical effects of brain injury often include depression, restlessness, lack of self-esteem, altered personality, and in some cases a lack of self-awareness of any existing shortcomings.